platinum group crusts

Platinum | GemCrust Wikia | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. It has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg.

Continental crust – Bernhard Peucker-Ehrenbrink

The platinum group element systematics of the upper continental crust. This collaborative research project investigated the use of loess as a proxy for the chemical composition of the upper (eroding) continental crust.

Platinum group elements (PGE) and Os isotopic geochemistry ...

Platinum group elements (PGE) and Os isotopic geochemistry of ferromanganese crusts from Pacific Ocean seamounts and their constraints on genesis. By ZM Sun, T Xue, GW He, M Zhang, GY Shi, SW Wang and HF Lu. Abstract.

Editorial 1 Platinum group elements and gold in ...

Editorial 1 Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation VK …

The platinum-group metals in your car come from ancient ...

The platinum-group metals in your car come from ancient meteorites that bombarded young Earth ... they make up about 0.0000002 per cent or 0.2 millionths of the Earth's crust. Osmium is a super ...

You'll Be Surprised to Learn About These 35 Common Uses of ...

Mar 05, 2018· Platinum and diamond earrings, finger rings, pendants, and bracelets are quite popular. Palladium, ruthenium, and iridium (the platinum group metals), and copper and cobalt are commonly alloyed with platinum to make jewelry. Statistics show that in 2010, 76 tons (about 31% of the platinum obtained) of platinum were used to make jewelry.

Minerals | Free Full-Text | Accumulation of Platinum Group ...

Distribution of platinum group elements (Ru, Pd, Pt, and Ir) and gold in hydrogenous ferromanganese deposits from the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean has been studied. The presented samples were the surface and buried Fe–Mn hydrogenous nodules, biomorphous nodules containing predatory fish teeth in their nuclei, and crusts. Platinum content varied from 47 to 247 ng/g, Ru from 5 to 26 ng ...

Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts ...

Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy–Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation V K Banakar1,∗, J R Hein2, R P Rajani1 and A R Chodankar1 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India.

Platinum-group elements - pubs.er.usgs.gov

The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications but are mined in only a few places. The availability and accessibility of PGEs could be disrupted by economic, environmental, political, and ...

Platinum group | Article about Platinum group by The Free ...

Platinum group metals accumulate almost entirely in crude nickel; silver and gold, in crude copper. Upon subsequent electrolytic refining, silver, gold, and platinum group metals precipitate to the bottom of the electrolyte bath in the form of a slurry, which is then refined. Use. Platinum is the most widely used of the platinum group metals.

Palladium: Mineral information, data and localities.

Platinum Group. Gold-Palladium Series, Palladium-Silver Series and Palladium-Platinum Series. ... Noble, rare-earth, and nonferrous metals in ferromanganese crusts from submarine volcanoes of the Sea of Japan. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 422, No. 1, pp. 1161-1166). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica.

Chemical composition of the continental crust: a ...

For these reasons, determining the chemical composition of the continental crust has been an aim of geochemists since the first analyses of rocks were undertaken (Clarke, 1889). The continental crust can be divided into upper, middle and lower layers and shows wide lithological and geochemical variations.

Platinum - chemicool.com

Platinum is a precious metal; soft, silvery-white, and dense with a beautiful lustrous sheen. It is one of the of the six platinum group metals consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, osmium, iridium and ruthenium. The Platinum Group Metals These metals have similar properties and are often present in the same mineral ores.

List of Platinum Group Metals or PGMs - ThoughtCo

The platinum group metals or PGMs are a set of six transition metals that share similar properties. They may be considered a subset of the precious metals. The platinum group metals are clustered together on the periodic table, plus these metals tend to be found together in …

Platinum - Wikipedia

Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements.It has six naturally occurring isotopes.It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production.

A metasomatized lithospheric mantle control on the ...

13 · Mungall, J. E. & Brenan, J. M. Partitioning of platinum-group elements and Au between sulfide liquid and basalt and the origins of mantle-crust fractionation of the chalcophile elements. Geochem ...

Accumulation of Platinum Group Elements in Hydrogenous Fe ...

platinum, and iridium are scavenged from seawater by suspended ferromanganese oxyhydroxides. The most likely mechanism of Platinum Group Elements (PGE) accumulation can be sorption and oxidation on -MnO2 surfaces. The obtained platinum fluxes to ferromanganese crusts and to nodules are close and vary from 35 to 65 ngcm 2 Ma 1. Palladium and ...

Geochemistry of PGE and Au in ferromanganese crusts from ...

Shi SF, Peng JT, Bu WR (2000) Pilot study on platinum-group elements of ferromanganese crust from Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19,4:339–340 (in …

How rare are precious metals? | Royal Mint Bullion

Aug 24, 2016· How rare are precious metals? The best known precious metals are of course gold and silver, which have both been made into currency and objects of art since before recorded history began. However, the platinum group of elements (platinum itself, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium) are also important precious metals.

Platinum metal reserves worldwide by country 2018 | Statista

Platinum-group metal reserves worldwide by country 2018 ... some 95 percent, is located in the Earth's crust of South Africa. Far behind it, other major countries are Russia, the United States ...

Platinum - Wikipedia

Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver". Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements.

Abundance of elements in Earth's crust - Wikipedia

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm = 1%). Note that the noble gases are not included, as they form no part of the solid crust.

7 Rarest Metals Which You Never Heard Of | Geology for ...

Relative abundance of elements in the Earth's upper crust. Platinum Group Metals. The first five elements osmium, iridium, palladium, ruthenium and rhodium are, together with platinum, known somewhat unimaginatively as the platinum-group metals (PGM's). PGM's are all chemically similar to each other and can substitute for each other in ...

The Biggest Platinum Metal Producers - The Balance

Annual global platinum production exceeded 8 million ounces a year as of fall 2017. Much like platinum ores in the Earth's crust, though, the production of platinum metal is highly concentrated, with the four largest refiners accounting for 67% of total platinum production.

Platinum - bgs.ac.uk

commonly made to platinum-group metals and to platinum-group minerals, both often abbreviated to PGM. In this ... The PGE are very rare in the earth's crust. The abundance . of platinum and palladium in the crust are similar, approximately 5 parts per billion (ppb), by weight.

Platinum - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Pure platinum is a little harder (4–4.5) on the Mohs scale of hardness than pure iron (4). Platinum is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust (0.005 g/t), precious with high specific gravity between 14 and 22. It is generally nonreactive to oxidation, wear, and tarnish. This …

Platinum group elements (PGE) and Os isotopic geochemistry ...

Platinum group elements (PGE), Au contents and Os isotopic compositions in ferromanganese crusts and their basaltic substrates from the central and west Pacific Ocean were analyzed.

Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts ...

Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy–Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation V K Banakar1,∗, JRHein2, R P Rajani1 and A R ...

Platinum Group Metals | Article about Platinum Group ...

Platinum group metals accumulate almost entirely in crude nickel; silver and gold, in crude copper. Upon subsequent electrolytic refining, silver, gold, and platinum group metals precipitate to the bottom of the electrolyte bath in the form of a slurry, which is then refined. Use. Platinum is the most widely used of the platinum group metals.

Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts ...

Apr 18, 2007· Hein J R, Koschinsky A and McIntyre B 2005 The global enrichment of platinum group elements in marine ferromanganese crusts; In: Extended Abstracts, 10 th International Platinum Symposium, (eds) Törmänen T O and Alapieti T T, 7–11 August …

Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts ...

Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation. Journal of Earth System Science, Apr 2007

Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts ...

The major element relationships in ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount (ANS), eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, appear to be atypical. High positive correlations (r = 0.99) between Mn/Co and Fe/Co ratios, and lack of correlation of those ratios with Co, Ce, and Ce/Co, indicate that the ANS Fe-Mn crusts are distinct from Pacific seamount Fe-Mn crusts, and reflect region ...

Where Can Platinum Be Found? | Reference.com

Platinum is found in nature in the Earth's crust. It exists as alloys with several other metals, including palladium, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium and iridium. It belongs to group 10 in the Periodic Table of Elements. Platinum is found in alluvial deposits in several …